We all recognize that Mill designers and Handweaving designers, as well as different geographic locations and countries use different formats for laying out and reading Drafts. In order for groups to stay on the same page when communicating with one another, it is essential for that group to agree on the format to be used.
Once the designer in any one group masters understanding the basic concept of weave formation, they have no problem recognizing what another designer has created even though the format may have dictated starting out differently, the end result is the same.
These design instructions were prepared for people entering industry, therefore you will note that is the format used. In earlier lessons, certain groundrules were established and these instructions are based on having established that 8 point drafting paper is the standard used and that all designing is done left to right, bottom to top (Industry standard).
After selecting the space to be used, the first row of spaces to the left, bottom to top is the first end in the design. The first row of spaces at the bottom left to right is the first pick (weft shot) in the design.
There are many fabrics having peculiar characteristics which require weaves of a special construction. Honeycomb weaves are one of this type and in cloth form ridges and hollows which give a cell-like appearance. The weaves are of two classes - ordinary honeycombs which give a similar effect on both sides of a fabric, and a fancy arrangement which will produce the cellular formation on one side only.
Any even number of ends and picks from six up, may be used in laying out one repeat of an ordinary honeycomb weave and the design may be constructed by a number of different arrangements.
In its simplest arrangement, two diamond shaped areas are formed by a single twill line of raisers. One of these areas is filled in with raisers and the other left as sinkers.
The design is made by first laying out a square containing an even number of ends and picks. A single line of raisers is then run to the right, starting on the first end and pick and ending on the last end and pick. A second single line of raisers, crossing the first one, is then run to the left, starting on the last end and second pick and ending on the second end and last pick. One of the diamond shaped areas so formed is filled in with raisers but not connected to the single lines of raisers, completing one repeat of the design.
A variation of this arrangement is made by having the second single line or raisers intersect with the first one instead of cross it. The second single line of raisers is started on the next to the last end and first pick and run up to the left until it joins the first single line or raisers Then from the next raiser, in the single line or raisers to the right, above this joining point, the single line or raisers to the left is continued, ending on the second end and last pick. This arrangement will form two diamond shaped areas one larger than the other. The largest area is filled in with raisers without connecting them to the single lines of raisers completing one repeat or the design,
Instead of using the same number or ends and picks in one repeat these weaves may be laid out on two more ends than picks or two more picks than ends.
To make a design on two more ends than picks, lay out an area on the paper containing an even number but two more ends than picks. Starting on the first end and pick, run a single line of raisers to the right covering one half the number of ends in the one repeat; then from this last raiser run a single line of raisers up to the left ending on the second end and last pick. Another single line or raisers is started on the last end and second pick and run up to the left covering one half the number of picks in one repeat; then from this last raiser run a single line or raisers up to the right ending on the last end and pick. This arrangement will also form two diamond shaped areas, one larger than the other; and the largest area is filled in with raisers as in the preceding example, completing one repeat of the design.
Turning this design on its side will be the equivalent of one or these weaves using two more picks than ends.
All four of these arrangements of the ordinary honeycomb weave may be made by using a double line of raisers instead of a single line, to form the diamond shaped areas. The double line is made of two single lines of raisers with one sinker between them. The designs are laid out in the same way but require more ends and picks in one repeat.
To lay out one of these weaves which will give the honeycomb effect on one side of the fabric only requires quite a different method of construction; also the number of ends and picks in one repeat must be in multiples of four, from eight up, and the same number used in both warp and filling.
The designs are made by first indicating on design paper the number of ends and picks in one repeat. A single line of raisers is run to the right starting on the first end and pick, and ending on the last end and pick. A second single line of raisers, crossing the first one, is then run to the left starting on the next to the last end and first pick and ending on the first end and the next to the last pick. A third single line or raisers, crossing the first one, is also run to the left starting on the last end and second pick and ending on the second end and last pick. This arrangement makes a single and double line of raisers forming two diamond shaped areas. In each of these areas two diamond shaped warp spots and two diamond shaped filling spots are formed, all being made the same size. The warp spots are formed in the right and left apex of each diamond shaped area, and must join against the double line of raisers, leaving the filling spots in the upper and lower apex area of each diamond shaped area, completing one repeat of the design. The length of the longest float of either warp or filling in each spot will be one less than one half the number of threads in one repeat of the design. Two repeats of the design each way will more clearly show the arrangement of the weave.